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Galton (1968) argued that genius is totally inherited, that is, it is transferred biologically from parent to offspring through their genes. Heredity had been a paradigm-forming concept for European culture in 19th century and even later, which was mirrored in both science and literary fiction. Darwins' natural selection (Origins of Species, 1859) was complimented by his cousin Galton's artificial selection (Hereditary Genius, 1869). In literature, from Hoffmann's Romanticism through Zola's Naturalism and Dickens' Realism to Meyrink's Post-Romanticism heredity largely determined construction of the plot. In the latter part of 19th century it was complemented by the concept of environmental or social determinism, and in the late 20th century, both types of determinism has been put into question by the advances in bio-technologies which provide possibility of deliberate manipulation of DNA and made possible new ways of reproduction.

Heredity. Dictionary of Creativity: Terms, Concepts, Theories & Findings in Creativity Research / Compiled and edited by Eugene Gorny., 2007.
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